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Social and economic costs of obesity – Economic Burden of Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review

Some studies have shown that obesity is associated with lower wages and lower household income. Generally, studies allow for a nonlinear relationship when modeling the effects of weight on absenteeism by dividing BMI into categories such as under-weight, normal weight, overweight, and obese.

William Thompson
Sunday, April 5, 2020
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  • Health Insurance. Direct medical costs One of the most cited economic impacts of the obesity epidemic is on direct medical spending.

  • Although more comprehensive analysis of costs is needed, substantial economic impacts of obesity are identified in all four categories by existing research. Disability In addition to absenteeism and presenteeism, obesity may lead to an increase in disability payments and disability insurance premiums.

  • The study, however, was limited by the fact that the BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height rather than actual precise measurements. This process makes the model complex and sometimes makes it difficult to understand [ 63 ].

  • Arch Intern Med.

Introduction

This aspect should also be considered when including obesity-related diseases. We've Been Set up. This has been recognised since in a prospective cohort that reviewed more thanfemale nurses in the their 30s to early 50s who did not have Diabetes 30 years prior to the study.

Obesity Research. This result is equivalent to one QALY lost for every 20 people who live one year with obesity. Annual excess jet fuel use attributable to costs. Int J Obesity. Inpatient and outpatient costs, bariatric surgery, medications, orthotics, prosthetics, medical consultations and diagnostic procedures. Attributable burden is determined by the co-morbidities included in a cost calculation. When comparing these costs with costs in developed countries, it should be borne in mind that the Brazilian public health system has a large unmet demand for bariatric surgery, and consequently, that there may be an underestimation of COO in Brazil due to unmet needs [ 64 ].

Von Lengerke T. Santos L. The economic cost of obesity: The French situation. Obesity and the risk for a hematological malignancy: Leukemia, lymphoma, or myeloma. Economic costs of obesity in Thailand: A retrospective cost-of-illness study. The third-party payer perspective includes insurance companies, governmental agencies, and employers.

Instead of measuring cross-sectional differences in educational attainment as done by Gortmaker et al 43 Kaestner et al 44 look at an NLSY cohort to study the effects of obesity on grade progression and drop-out rates. Regression analysis based on nationally representative surveys is another widely-used approach in the literature on health care costs associated with obesity. Thompson and colleagues concluded that, over the course of a lifetime, per-person costs for obesity were similar to those for smoking. These constitute costs to the health service visits to general practitioners, consultations with medical specialists, hospital admissions and medication. A pair of recent studies examines who ultimately bears the health care costs associated with obesity. Suppl Web Exclusives. The difference in utility under the optimal solution in each model is then measured to find welfare loss.

Behind the Numbers

The study sample included around obese men with BMI greater wconomic Skip to content Obesity Prevention Source. They project cumulative costs from to by making assumptions about productivity growth and trends in obesity. Baseline evaluation of health and psychosocial functioning in the first subjects examined. Moreover, the Campbell and Cochrane Economics Methods Group guidelines have been followed including search criteria, data extraction, synthesis and critical analysis.

The overall economic impact of obesity in the US appears to be substantial. We also recommend that additional obesity-related diseases be considered in economiic COO studies, such as liver and mental diseases which have mostly been neglected so far. BMC Res. A useful example for rapidly rising costs attributable to obesity from these selected studies are the two mentioned studies from Germany [ 4446 ]. Using a dynamic multi-stage model of the relationship between BMI and risk for five diseases strongly linked to weight status see aboveThompson et al 13 generate associated medical care costs for each stage of the model.

  • Kitahara C. Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

  • They find overweight BMI

  • Am J Clin Nutr. Segel J.

  • Vainio H.

  • Additional contributing factors include the food and physical activity environment, education and skills, and food marketing and promotion. Using employee compensation data, along with information on clinical events related to obesity, diabetes, and CHD, the authors estimate indirect costs due to work absence or reduced work.

This might require extensive resources and social and economic costs of obesity not be always practical e. Watch The Obesity Epidemic external icon to learn about factors that contribute obbesity the obesity epidemic, as well as several community initiatives to prevent and reduce obesity. Direct and Indirect Costs of Obesity Two types of costs are associated with the treatment of obesity and obesity-related conditions: Direct costs are those that result from outpatient and inpatient health services including surgerylaboratory and radiological tests, and drug therapy. Flow chart depicting the process of the study selection for the systematic review.

The magnitude of potential economic impact underscores the importance of the obesity epidemic as a focus social and economic costs of obesity policy and a topic for future research. By one estimate, the U. The relationship between relative weight and school attendance among elementary schoolchildren. Such an increase could reflect a loss in productivity beyond what is captured in absenteeism data if recipients are unable to hold a job altogether. World Obesity represents professional members of the scientific, medical and research communities from over 50 regional and national obesity associations, and a wider network of obesity organisations across the globe. Am J Prevent Med.

References

Obesity, disability, and movement onto the disability insurance rolls. Clinical Obesity. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

  • Family health history reflects the effects of shared genetics and environment among close relatives. Detailed characteristics of these studies are presented in Table 1.

  • Body weight and mortality among women.

  • Sturm R. RTI has extensive experience with economic and disease modeling approaches to measure costs of illness and the costs and cost-effectiveness of intervention programs for NCDs and NCD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, kidney disease, and tobacco use.

  • The overall economic impact of obesity in the US appears to be substantial.

Research to date has identified ov least four major categories of economic impact linked with the obesity epidemic: direct medical costs, productivity social and economic costs of obesity, transportation costs, and human capital costs. As also found by Frone, 26 this effect appears to be largely driven by the higher propensity of obese workers to have co-occurring conditions. Prev Chron Dis. It is estimated that obesity, along with smoking and armed violence, is one of the top three social burdens generated by humans. Table 1 The key costs identified from research on the economic impact of obesity. Am J Epidemiol.

ALSO READ: New York Times Obesity Article 2013

Am J Clin Social and economic costs of obesity. Prev Chron Dis. This approach allows soxial direct study of individual medical histories and charged costs with no aggregation, but relies on self-report for BMI and other initial data. First, the direct medical costs associated with obesity are substantial. Forecasting the future economic burden of current adolescent overweight: an estimate of the coronary heart disease policy model. A subset of the authors discussing absenteeism translates their results on the correlation between obesity and absenteeism into dollar amounts representing the cost of the estimated productivity loss. As a preventable disease, reforms must be made to address obesity through education, fitness, media, and employers.

Indirect costs include early mortality costs and morbidity costs due to sickness absence and informal care costs [ 13 ]. Thompson et al economif base their estimates on a retrospective study conducted at Kaiser Permanente in Oregon, with 1, subjects who responded to a random sample survey. The effect of body weight on adolescent academic performance. What is the economic case for treating obesity? Economic costs of overweight and obesity.

Estimating the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic. Ecolog Econ. Days missed from work are a cost econmic both employees in lost wages and employers in work not completed. World Obesity and RTI International have put several safeguards in place to maintain transparency, reproducibility, and iterative critical review of the research process for this project.

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Am J Prev Med. Self-esteem and intelligence were also measured at baseline. We systematically review current evidence on each set of costs in turn, and discuss important gaps for future research along with potential trends in future economic impacts of obesity.

The rate of growth in spending among the obese group was much higher than overall per capita spending growth. Wassertheil-Smoller S. Body mass index and quality of well-being in a community of older adults. Obesity not only costs the individual but also the employer.

More research is needed to determine the productivity loss associated with this correlation: to what extent does obesty on disability decrease employment among recipients? In addition to direct costs reflected in healthcare, indirect costs associated with obesity include decreased work productivity, high workers' compensation claims, and lower earnings. DOI: Of these, effects on productivity play the largest role empirically.

Consequences of Obesity

Neovius K. In two-part models, the probability of the medical expenditures is calculated first; thereafter it is multiplied by the amount of expenses conditional on the presence of these expenses. Obesity Silver Spring ; 16 10 —

They divide cost estimates among payers Medicare, Medicaid, or private and cost next paul inpatient, outpatient, or prescription. Michaelowa A, Dransfield B. In one of the earliest analyses, Colditz looked at the direct and indirect costs in the U. Transportation costs In addition to its impact on medical spending and productivity, obesity may affect transportation costs. Economic costs of obesity to self-insured employers. The damage and costs associated with obesity consist of increased health care costs, decreased productivity, and premature deaths. This project is being informed by an independent scientific committee.

In only six studies [ 313538484952 ] was the time frame of the analyses longer than 1 year. Learn More. The effort related to attempting to lose weight and body image issues were significant extra risk factors. Am J Health Promot. Lost some, save some: obesity, automobile demand, and gasoline consumption in the United States. Cost of illness studies on reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: A systematic literature review.

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The studies under review show that obesity is responsible for a large fraction of costs, both for health care systems and for society. Grunstein RR. Personal Finance. Slowly becoming a global health epidemic, the prevalence of obesity has risen drastically over the past two decades.

The incidence of the healthcare costs of obesity. Author information Copyright and License economic costs Disclaimer. In addition to absenteeism and presenteeism, obesity may lead to an increase in disability payments and disability insurance premiums. Once the findings of the pilot countries are launched, we hope to expand and apply the methodology across the world to create a global atlas of the true economic and social impact of obesity. Finally, measures of academic performance can provide an estimate of the relationship between obesity and the quality of education, potentially affecting human capital accumulation independently of educational attainment. Open in a separate window.

These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. Jacobson and King 38 use a mathematical model to estimate the additional annual fuel consumption by noncommercial passenger highway travel in the US that is associated with overweight and obesity to be approximately one billion gal. N Eng J Med. Forecasting the future economic burden of current adolescent overweight: an estimate of the coronary heart disease policy model. Pronk et al 15 include outcome variables that measure quality of work performed as well as workplace inter-personal relationships.

Obesity and the COVID-19 Pandemic

Lifetime loss of productivity; sickness absence; disability pension and premature mortality. The results are mostly not statistically significant, though when they are, the effects are quite large. Integration of this research into a broader macroeconomic framework would allow careful assessment of the net economic impact associated with obesity reduction. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work.

Obes Rev. Obesity-related medical costs occur not only csots adult populations, but in children as obesity. Food Safety Glossary. Furthermore, we considered obesity to be a fixed condition even though it has been discussed in the recent literature that obesity may be a transient state, e. Health Aff Millwood ; 29 3 — On the other hand, the mass effect of accumulating adipose tissue can result in cardiopulmonary disease due to obstructive sleep apnoea, joint disease due to osteoarthritis in addition to the psychological burden and stigma related to obesity.

The impact of school attendance on human capital and productivity is likely to operate through its effect on educational attainment; attendance could social and economic costs of obesity affect productivity via associated parental work absenteeism. The magnitude of this impact, and the potential for high future impact identified sociak several studies, 162147 underscore the importance of the obesity epidemic as a focus for policy and a topic for future research. The Harvard Gazette. She has also worked on the demographic dividend and population and development issues. World Obesity and RTI International have joined forces to produce a replicable, comparable, and understandable modelling framework to calculate the current and projected economic and social impact of overweight and obesity. The overall economic impact of obesity in the US appears to be substantial.

Developing the First Global and Country-Specific Estimate of the Economic Impact of Obesity

Cancel Continue. The per-capita costs social and economic costs of obesity then extrapolated to the whole population with the health problem, based obesjty relevant epidemiological data [ 58 ]. Fat mass effect Increased fat accumulation in the soft tissues around the neck, thorax and trunk exerts adverse effect on the ability of the lungs to expand due to the mechanical restriction of thoracic wall movement and reduced contractility of the diaphragm. Some studies have shown that obesity is associated with lower wages and lower household income.

Fifteen- year-old males in the 90th percentile or above for BMI are 3. Ov is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. Related Terms Digital Divide The digital divide refers to the gap between people who have access to modern information and communications technology and those who don't. The outcome variables used also vary in definition across studies.

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  • The authors argue that these costs may be unavoidable, with currently existing technologies unable to reduce significantly the likely future consequences of current adolescent overweight. On the other hand, a study by Lightwood et al 22 looks at current and future costs of adolescent overweight.

  • Indirect costs include early mortality costs and morbidity costs due to sickness absence and informal care costs [ 13 ]. Likewise, the cost of premature mortality is measured using the probability of employment for a given age and gender, varying by BMI, and is projected forward from to

  • Behind the U. Medical costs associated with incidence of obesity-related diseases Associated with incidence of obesity-related diseases are direct medical costs for diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  • Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

To develop a modeling framework of obesity's direct and indirect costs to society in low- and middle-income countries. Krueger H. The economic burden of obesity worldwide: a systematic review of the direct costs of obesity. Direct costs include those discussed in the first section of this paper, while indirect costs focus on premature mortality, higher disability insurance premiums, and labor market productivity. We recommend that obesity-related diseases and complications should be included more consistently. Potential bias introduced by self-reporting of weight is corrected for.

Obesity-related medical costs occur not obesjty in adult populations, but in children as well. They use self-reported data on costs medical conditions and BMI from two nationally representative surveys the National Medical Expenditure survey and the Household Component of the MEPSand construct a two-part regression controlling for key individual variables such as demography, smoking, and insurance status. We review four studies in this section that consider the relationship between obesity and human capital accumulation. A review of the literature. Through our membership we create a global community of organisations dedicated to solving the problems of obesity.

Publication types

Swedish obese subjects SOS — an intervention study of obesity. Diabetes Metab. Economic costs of obesity in Thailand: A retrospective cost-of-illness study.

The results are mostly ocsts statistically significant, though when they are, the effects are quite large. In addition to absenteeism and presenteeism, obesity may lead to an increase in disability payments and disability insurance premiums. By one estimate, the U. BMI is assumed to be constant at its initial value for all individuals, with other risk factors adjusted for each year of aging. Obesity is further related to poor physical functioning and limitations in daily life. Thompson et al 5 present a dynamic model of the relationships between BMI and the risks of five diseases linked with obesity: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, CHD, and stroke.

Cists GA. Support Center Support Center. Much of the modelled estimates of the economic impact of social and economic costs of obesity and obesity have been generated from varying methodology and so are not directly comparable across studies and countries. The estimates of direct costs reviewed here may generally be conservative — they often rely on self-reported data which tend to show a downward bias in BMIand focus on a set of obesity-related diseases more narrow than the full set identified in the medical literature.

Behind the Numbers

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Incidence-based, top-down approach, prospective. The authors attribute the majority of this increase to higher prevalence of overweight. Health insurance and the obesity externality. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Generally, studies allow for a nonlinear relationship when modeling the effects andd weight on absenteeism by dividing BMI into categories such as under-weight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. The difference in utility under the optimal solution in each model is then measured to find welfare loss. Obesity prevalence in Mexico: Impact on health and economic burden. Am J Prev Med. Inpatient costs, medication, consultation, management of complications. Obesity-related medical costs occur not only in adult populations, but in children as well.

Obes Res. Several studies have estimated the portion of health care expenditure on obesity that is paid for by public insurance. Lancet Psychiatry. This has highlighted common flaws in literature on the subject with lack of optimal methodologically designed studies.

Asian J. It is also associated with several chronic diseases obesuty to either the mass effect of the expanding adipose tissue or the its direct metabolic effect. The medical care costs of obesity: An instrumental variables approach. In contrast, in cultures where obesity is not socially defamed this might not be the case.

It is also associated with several chronic diseases due to either the mass effect of the expanding adipose tissue or the its direct metabolic effect. Keywords: obesity, economic impact, United States, economic cost. This has highlighted common obesihy in literature on the subject with lack of optimal methodologically designed studies. It has been described in recent studies and reviews that there is a gradient between increasing BMI and costs attributable to obesity [ 9101112 ]. Economic impact of adult obesity on health systems: A systematic review. The first model measures the overall correlation, the second controls for a list of covariates including family structure and educational attainment, respondent health, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and region, and the third model instruments weight at age t-1 with weight in the previous year.

J Occup Environ Med. Ot economic costs associated with body mass index in a workplace. Premature mortality Another form of productivity loss associated with obesity is premature mortality or reduction in QALYs. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Arch Intern Med. Dannenberg et al 37 provide a direct estimate of the one-year fuel costs for the passenger airline sector that are associated with increased levels of obesity in US adults from to

J Workplace Behav Health. Obese white females had a 0. Respondents were asked ecnoomic estimate the average amount of time elapsed between arriving and starting work on days when they were not feeling well, as well as total hours of lost concentration, repeating a job, or feeling fatigued. The research on the economic impact of obesity reviewed above covers a broad range of potential costs. This in return reduces lung volumes and results in hypoventilation.

Introduction

The authors argue that this gap in health-insurance premiums may explain most of the wage gap usually attributed to discrimination. Health Aff Millwood ; 29 3 — Lost some, save some: obesity, automobile demand, and gasoline consumption in the United States.

Complex systems modeling for obesity socail. They divide cost estimates among payers Medicare, Medicaid, or private and cost category inpatient, outpatient, or prescription. The authors note that even if an individual does not consciously choose to consume more calories or exercise less, pooled insurance reduces the price of obesity, and obesity has been shown to be somewhat responsive to price signals eg, food prices. They use self-reported data on both medical conditions and BMI from two nationally representative surveys the National Medical Expenditure survey and the Household Component of the MEPSand construct a two-part regression controlling for key individual variables such as demography, smoking, and insurance status. J Health Econ.

ALSO READ: 6 Foot 190 Pounds Overweight

The economic impact of obesity in the United States. Direct medical costs include costs for the treatment and management of the diseases, e. Therefore, it has to be noted that using overall average earnings may overestimate average earnings for obese workers, especially women, in light of evidence that obesity is associated with low socioeconomic status [ 79 ]. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Anxiety, low confidence and self-esteem were more common in the obese group.

Obes Rev. World Health Organization. Nearly a decade later, another systematic review on the subject 27 anticipated that obesity is responsible for about 0. Based on our literature review and consultations obeskty an advisory group of experts, which we convened for this project, we have employed a cost-of-illness approach to estimate the economic impacts of obesity, including both direct and indirect costs from a societal perspective. Conclusions : There is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent obesity in order to save societal resources. Accessed May 26, Some reviews have included studies that accounted for direct costs [ 232628 ], while others have included only indirect costs [ 25 ].

Mission: Readiness Council for a Strong America; All taxpayers and employers. Effertz T. Bray G.

Cost of illness studies on reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health: A systematic literature review. Younossi Z. Direct non-medical costs include, e. In this paper, we have performed a systematic literature review of recent cost of obesity COO studies.

Obesity is also associated with the leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. Research econnomic date has identified at least four major categories of economic impact linked with the obesity epidemic: direct medical costs, productivity costs, transportation costs, and human capital costs. Summarizing these results, we can state that obesity is responsible for a large fraction of costs, not only to the health care system but also to society at large. Loss of productivity due to premature mortality and hospital-related absenteeism. The economics of childhood obesity. Controlling for covariates, the authors find that while normal-weight children missed between Shrestha N.

Incidence- based, top-down approach, prospective. In addition to direct medical sodial of obesity, a number of more indirect costs are part of the overall economic impact of obesity. In addition, across-the-board local and international strategic plans are required for prevention and control of this epidemic. Obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Biochemical, metabolic and clinical implications.

  • Bottom-up approach, retrospective.

  • National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

  • Those with higher waist circumference had a higher risk of developing Diabetes and the study clearly demonstrated the role of central adiposity, as a metabolic risk factor for Diabetes.

  • Another adverse health effect related to obesity is the risk of Gallstones. Search Strategy A systematic search was performed to identify relevant articles published in databases from 1 January until 14 September

  • Notably, the papers reviewed here provide a reasonably wide range of estimates for the total indirect costs of obesity.

Total costs for health care and econoimc costs. To estimate health care costs by modelling. It is usually measured using Body Mass Index calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms by the square height in metres. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. The mortality was lowest among patients with a BMI in the normal range of

Finkelstein et al 16 use data from the and Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys MEPS along with National Health Socil Accounts data on health spending to construct a regression that controls for demography, smoking status, and insurance status. The literature in this area includes analyses of the aggregate productivity loss due to obesity, as well as estimates for several distinct sub-categories of productivity costs. Obesity at a relatively younger age can lead to increased risk of knee osteoarthritis later in life. Rather than giving an exhaustive review of absenteeism studies, we summarize here key findings and methodological differences across several recent papers that have addressed the relationship between obesity and absenteeism and the associated costs.

  • Frone MR. Body size and fat distribution as predictors of coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older US men.

  • Vanderbilt University. Obesjty authors determine the distribution of individuals across BMI categories, as well as life expectancy at each age between 18 and 85 years in each BMI category, and calculate years of life lost YLL in each category relative to a reference BMI of 24 the high end of the normal-weight range.

  • The HCA measures lost production, in terms of lost earnings of a patient.

  • Similar relative disease risk rates for the overweight and obese are found in large-scale population studies. A new methodology To calculate the current and projected economic impact associated with overweight and obesity we are developing a new methodology.

  • Women who had been obese in the baseline survey had significantly fewer years of school completed 0. Andreyeva T.

Several studies reported reduced employability even with similar credentials and skills. Therefore, it is important to create environments that make it easier to engage in physical activity and eat healthy foods. Gerdtham2, 3, 4 Peter M. Obesity reviews.

Instead of measuring cross-sectional differences in educational attainment as done by Gortmaker et al 43 Kaestner et al 44 look at an NLSY cohort to study the effects of obesity on grade progression and drop-out rates. Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Direct costs include those discussed in the first section of this paper, while indirect costs focus on premature mortality, higher disability insurance premiums, and labor market productivity. There is a lack of good economic analysis on this subject, although research from Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands has clearly shown that obesity is associated with increased sick leave and disability pensions. Ecolog Econ.

Published online Aug For example, Thompson et al 36 look at the total cost of obesity to US businesses, differentiating between health insurance expenditures and paid sick leave, life insurance, and disability insurance. Group Health Insurance A group health insurance plan offers coverage at a lower premium than an individual plan and is available to employees of a company or organization. May, [Accessed May 26, ].

Arch Intern Med. Baby Boomer A baby boomer is a person who was born between and and belongs to a generational group that has had a significant impact on the economy. Second, significant productivity costs are linked with obesity. Obesity is linked with higher risk for several serious health conditions, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease CHDstroke, asthma, and arthritis.

A disadvantage of the top-down approach is that all possible confounding variables need to be adjusted for when ecohomic the PAF. Obesity not only costs the individual but also the employer. The items that were included in the estimation of the patient-level data included drug medication in all twelve studies, but the other items, e. Obesity and absenteeism among US workers: do physical health and mental health explain the relation? Su et al. Received Mar 5; Accepted Apr Ecolog Econ.

Not mentioned. Ricci JA, Chee E. The top-down approach is simple, transparent, and cheaper and faster than the bottom-up approach.

Human capital accumulation costs. Several studies use dynamic models to estimate medical care costs associated with overweight and obesity over a substantial time period. Ann Intern Med. It increases the risk of developing conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, osteoarthritis, and some cancers, to name just a few, and reduces the life span. Obesity, disability, and movement onto the disability insurance rolls.

  • Obesity Prevention Source Menu. Ann Intern Med.

  • Obesity and absenteeism among US workers: do physical health and mental health explain the relation? Weight- and obesity-related health problems include heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, to name a few.

  • This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.

  • Obesity Silver Spring ; 16 10 —

Body mass index BMIcalculated as weight in kilogram kg divided by height in meters squared, is one of the most commonly used screening tools to measure and characterize obesity. These indirect costs include absenteeism missing days of workpresenteeism reduced productivity while at workearly retirement, the cost of premature mortality, and more. A different study quantified an increase of 1 mmHg in systolic blood pressure resulting from each one-unit increase in BMI among healthy 20—29 year olds. The HCA measures lost production, in terms of lost earnings of a patient.

Fifteen- year-old males in the 90th percentile or above for BMI are 3. Due to relative ease of measurement, studies estimating the absenteeism costs obesity overweight and obesity make up the largest category of productivity cost studies to date. Pronk et al 15 include outcome variables that measure quality of work performed as well as workplace inter-personal relationships. Accessed May 26, He has recently retired as Director of Policy for the World Obesity Federation based in London and continues as consultant to the organisation, as well as to UNICEF and various other authorities and non-governmental organisations.

1. Introduction

A pattern of healthy eating and regular physical activity is also important for long-term health benefits and prevention of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Hence, the costs reported by Effertz et al. National Center for Health Statistics. Health and economic burden of obesity in Brazil. The impact of obesity on illness absence and productivity in an industrial population of petrochemical workers.

Control variables included level of exercise, region, intelligence scores, parental involvement eg, Parent-Teacher Association participationfamily background, religion, sexual behavior, economiv consumption, and age. Results from the model demonstrate substantial increases in disease risk with increasing BMI. Economic outcomes of the obese patient. Professor Franco Sassi graduated with a degree in economics and a doctorate in health economics from the University of London in

After calibrating the model using data from the MEPS, the authors find that there is in fact a welfare loss under pooled insurance. They use self-reported data on both medical conditions and BMI from two nationally representative surveys the National Medical Expenditure survey and the Household Component of the MEPSand construct a two-part regression controlling for key individual variables such as demography, smoking, and insurance status. Years of life lost due to obesity. Cawley J. Key Takeaways Obesity continues to negatively affect the health of billions of individuals worldwide.

  • Of the total cost of LPT, two-thirds is attributable to presenteeism and one-third to absenteeism.

  • External link. Absenteeism Due to relative ease of measurement, studies estimating the absenteeism costs of overweight and obesity make up the largest category of productivity cost studies to date.

  • Vigo D. All taxpayers and employers.

  • Finally, measures of academic performance can provide an estimate of the relationship between obesity and the quality of education, potentially affecting human capital accumulation independently of educational attainment.

  • Introduction Obesity is a condition in which fat accumulates in the body to a point where it is a risk factor or marker for a number of chronic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases CVDs and cancer, and has adverse effects on overall health [ 123 ]. Scuffham, Academic Editor.

  • National Center for Health Statistics. Differences in findings may be due to a confluence of factors in the design of the studies, rather than simply differences in econometric specifications or data sources.

The research on the economic impact of obesity reviewed above covers a broad range of potential economi. To estimate long-term health care expenditures. It is possible that a clearer understanding of the cost of obesity will spur larger and more urgent programs to prevent and treat it. Oct, [Accessed May 26, ]. The author uses data from the NLSY and includes respondents aged 14 to 17 who were not pregnant at the time of the survey.

Body mass index and future healthcare costs: a retrospective cohort study. They divide cost estimates among payers Medicare, Medicaid, or private and cost category inpatient, outpatient, or prescription. Annual excess jet fuel use attributable to obesity. Reforms are needed to address obesity through education, fitness, media, and employers. Premature mortality Another form of productivity loss associated with obesity is premature mortality or reduction in QALYs. In addition to direct medical costs of obesity, a number of more indirect costs are part of the overall economic impact of obesity.

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